Showcasing Members' Scholarship
Each year, we collect and compile a list of publications by our members that have come out during that calendar year.
Every one to two months, we randomly select a focus publication to be featured here.
Focus Publication - February 2021
The (randomly) selected focus publication for February 2021 is:
Tracy, K. (2020). Judicial questioning: How context shapes facework strategies. In D. Archer, K. Grainger, & P. Jogodzinski (Eds.), Politeness in professional contexts (pp. 249-270). Amsterdam: John Benjamims.
A PDF of this chapter is available for download here.
Focus Publication - January 2021
The (randomly) selected focus publication for January 2021 is:
Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2019). Evolution of L2 motivation in higher education. The Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, 20, 249–263.
This paper investigates how L2 motivation evolves over time in higher education. A motivational-intensity questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 145 first-year male students studying in the foundation year of a higher education institution in Saudi Arabia. The Mann–Whitney U test and the Student’s t-test showed that the motivational intensity of second-semester students was significantly lower in terms of daily studying and preparation for major exams. The results also showed a worrying pattern of Saudi L2 learners exhibiting little inclination to practice the reading skill. Possible interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.
A PDF of this article is available for download here.
Focus Publication - December 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for December 2020 is:
Stanley, S. J., Yan, K., Jian, J., Lutovsky, B., Aubrey, J. S., & Pitts, M. J. (2019). Communicating about sex when it matters: A content analytic investigation of sexual health information on college student health center websites. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 47, 591-610. doi:10.1080/00909882.2019.1675895
Young adults struggle to achieve sexual health. Student Health Centers (SHCs) associated with colleges and universities are uniquely positioned to provide young adults with credible and complete sexual health information. Using the comprehensive model of information seeking for theoretical guidance, we conducted a content analysis to examine the credibility and completeness of sexual health information available to young adults through SHC websites at 400 randomly selected U.S. colleges/universities. Unfortunately, most SHC websites do not provide complete sexual health information, which may decrease the credibility of SHCs as a source of sexual health information for young adults. Few websites (9.0%, n = 36) had an explicitly labeled sexual health area, and most of the remaining websites merely mentioned sexual health (80.2%, n = 292), suggesting that for many SHCs, sexual health is covered perfunctorily. Topics related to sexual health predominantly focused on prevention and risk topics (i.e., STDs, contraception, and pregnancy). We offer practical suggestions for SHC webpages to align their sexual health information content with the American College Health Association standards of practice and point to a scholarly focus on content characteristics and information availability to complement information seeking studies.
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Focus Publication - October/Novemeber 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for October/November 2020 is:
Edwards, J. (2019). Minority languages and group identity: Scottish Gaelic in the Old World and the New. In S. Preece (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and identity (pp. 492-503). New York and Oxford: Routledge.
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Focus Publication - August/September 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for August/September 2020 is:
Jordan, K. N., Sterling, J., Pennebaker, J. W., & Boyd, R. L. (2019). Examining long-term trends in politics and culture through language of political leaders and cultural institutions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 3476-3481. doi:10.1073/pnas.1811987116
From many perspectives, the election of Donald Trump was seen as a departure from long-standing political norms. An analysis of Trump’s word use in the presidential debates and speeches indicated that he was exceptionally informal but at the same time, spoke with a sense of certainty. Indeed, he is lower in analytic thinking and higher in confidence than almost any previous American president. Closer analyses of linguistic trends of presidential language indicate that Trump’s language is consistent with long-term linear trends, demonstrating that he is not as much an outlier as he initially seems. Across multiple corpora from the American presidents, non-US leaders, and legislative bodies spanning decades, there has been a general decline in analytic thinking and a rise in confidence in most political contexts, with the largest and most consistent changes found in the American presidency. The results suggest that certain aspects of the language style of Donald Trump and other recent leaders reflect long-evolving political trends. Implications of the changing nature of popular elections and the role of media are discussed.
For more information about this article, see: https://www.pnas.org/content/116/9/3476
Focus Publication - July 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for July 2020 is:
Close, E., White, B.P., Willmott, L., Gallois, C., Parker, M., Graves, N., & Winch, S. (2019). Doctors’ perceptions of how resource limitations relate to futility in end-of-life decision making: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Medical Ethics, 45, 373-379.
Objective: To increase knowledge of how doctors perceive futile treatments and scarcity of resources at the end of life. In particular, their perceptions about whether and how resource limitations influence end‐of‐life decision making. This study builds on previous work that found some doctors include resource limitations in their understanding of the concept of futility.
Setting: Three tertiary hospitals in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia.
Design: Qualitative study using in‐depth, semi‐structured, face‐to‐face interviews. Ninety‐six doctors were interviewed in eleven medical specialties. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.
Results: Doctors’ perceptions of whether resource limitations were relevant to their practice varied, and doctors were more comfortable with explicit rather than implicit rationing. Several doctors incorporated resource limitations into their definition of futility. For some, availability of resources was one factor of many in assessing futility, secondary to patient considerations, but a few doctors indicated that the concept of futility concealed rationing. Doctors experienced moral distress due to the resource implications of providing futile treatment and the lack of administrative supports for bedside rationing.
Conclusions: Doctors’ ability to distinguish between futility and rationing would be enhanced through regulatory support for explicit rationing, and strategies to support doctors’ role in rationing at the bedside. Medical policies should address the distinction between resource limitations and futility to promote legitimacy in end‐of‐life decision making.
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Focus Publication - June 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for June 2020 is:
Bourhis, R.Y. (2019). Evaluating the impact of Bill 101 on the English-Speaking communities of Quebec. Language Problems and Language Planning, 43, 198-229.
Though forty years of language policies much improved the status and use of French in Quebec, laws such as Bill 101 played a role in reducing the demographic and institutional vitality of the English-speaking communities of Quebec (ESCQ). Pro-French laws maintained Francophones at close to 80% of the Quebec population and ensured that 95% of the Quebec population acquired knowledge of French. Language laws contributed to the decline of Anglophone mother tongue speakers from 13% of the population in 1971 to 7.5% in 2016, while increasing to 70% French/English bilingualism amongst Anglophones. With a net interprovincial loss of over 310,000 Anglophones who left Quebec for the rest of Canada (ROC), results show that Anglophones who stayed in Quebec are less educated and earn lower income than Quebec Francophones. Language laws limiting access to English schools succeeded in reducing the size of the English school system from 256, 251 pupils in 1971 (100%) to only 96,235 pupils in 2018 (37%). While the Anglophone minority bemoan their demographic and institutional decline in education, health care, and government services, many Francophones remains concerned about threats to French by bilingualism in Montreal and their minority status in Canada and North America.
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Focus Publication - May 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for May 2020 is:
Honeycutt, J., & Harwood, J. (2019). Using music therapy and imagined interaction to cope with stress. In J. Honeycutt (Ed.), Promoting mental health through imagery and imagined interactions (pp. 73-92). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Music affects moods and emotion and can help people in dealing with stress. Music therapy has been shown to reduce pain and cope with depression. In fact, the ISO (Incremental Sound Organizer) principle of music therapy reveals how people’s emotions can change while listening to a medley of music. Research is reviewed in which people have imagined interactions while listening to music as memories are recalled. Music is used to maintain relationships as couples often have their own song. Music fulfills the catharsis function of imagined interactions as people release anxiety or tension. Music serves numerous functions, which can be subsumed into 1) achieving self-awareness, 2) expressing social relatedness, and 3) regulating, arousal and mood. Respectively, these functions are similar to the II features of valence, self-understanding, and relational maintenance. Music could have emerged as a form of coalition signaling by using music in groups, we signal to others that our group is organized, resource-rich, synchronized, and “in tune” (both literally and metaphorically) with one another.
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Focus Publication - March/April 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for March/April 2020 is:
Bernhold, Q., & Giles, H. (2019). Communication accommodation theory as a lens to examine painful self-disclosures in grandparent-grandchild relationships. In T. Avtgis, A. Rancer, E. MacGeorge, & C. Liberman (eds), Casing communication theory (pp. 31-48). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.
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Focus Publication - January/February 2020
The (randomly) selected focus publication for January/February 2020 is:
Park, K., & Dubinsky, S. (2019). The syntax and semantics of negative questions and answers in Korean and English. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 4, 19, 1-9. Washington DC: LSA. doi:10.3765/plsa.v4i1.4518
Differences in Korean and English negative polarity questions (NPQs) are revealed by the interpretation of simple yes–no answers to them. Yes–no answers to NPQs have seemingly unpredictable interpretations (Claus et al. 2017, Holmberg 2013, Kim 2017, Krifka 2017, Kramer & Rawlins 2009, Ladd 1981, Sudo 2013). However, one clearly observable fact is that yes–no answers to English and Korean NPQs can have opposite interpretations. This study: (i) compares the interpretation of positive and negative polarity questions (PPQs and NPQs) in English and Korean; (ii) examines the structure of negation in each language and its interaction with NPQs, and (iii) reports on an online experiment which gathered native speaker interpretations of NPQs in each language under context-free conditions.
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Focus Publication - May 2016
he (randomly) selected focus publication for May 2016 is:
Setchell, J., Watson, B., Jones, L., & Gard, M. (2015). Weight stigma in physiotherapy practice: Insights from patient experiences of interactions with physiotherapists. Manual Therapy. 20, 835–841. [ PDF ]
Weight management is increasingly considered part of physiotherapists’ scope of practice in order to improve patient outcomes by, for example, reducing load on joints, or improving chronic pain. However, interactions with patients involving weight may result in patient perceptions of negative judgement from health professionals, which can result in poorer health outcomes. How physiotherapist/patient interactions involving weight are perceived by patients has not yet been investigated.
To explore patients’ perceptions of interactions with physiotherapists that involved weight, and investigate how these perceptions may inform physiotherapy practice.
Face-to-face interviews with physiotherapy patients, with follow up interviews conducted by telephone. Data were analysed thematically.
First interviews were held in a physiotherapy practice with follow up interviews conducted two weeks later. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic method established by Braun and Clarke.
Thirty interviews with 15 patients were analysed. Four main themes relevant to weight were identified: 1) perceptions of being ‘in physiotherapy’ including pre-conceptions, the physical environment, and exposing the body, 2) emphasis placed on weight in physiotherapy interactions, 3) communication styles, and 4) judgement perception.
Some patients perceived negative weight judgements from elements of physiotherapy interactions and environments. Physiotherapists need to be aware of this perception because it may result in poorer patient outcomes and patients avoiding physiotherapy appointments. The results suggest strategies to counteract weight stigma include: adjusting the physical environment of the clinic, portraying an understanding of complex determinants of weight, and employing collaborative, non-judgemental communication styles.
Focus Publication - March/April 2016
The (randomly) selected focus publication for March/April 2016 is:
Hewett, D.G., Watson, B.M., & Gallois, C. (2015). Communication between hospital doctors: Underaccommodation and interpretability. Language and Communication, 41, 71-83.
Abstract: We examined underaccommodation in hospital medical charts, with a focus on interpretability. In Study 1 147 hospital doctors completed a questionnaire including interpretations of chart entries from their own or another specialty. Study 2 used interviews with 10 doctors to explore interpretations of the same charts and perceptions of the writers. Results indicated that participants interpreted entries by ingroup doctors more accurately than outgroup ones. Interview findings indicated that doctors made excuses for their peers and cast patients as an outgroup. Results indicate that underaccommodation leads to lack of comprehension, which is generally excused by readers.
Focus Publication - January/February 2016
The (randomly) selected focus publication for January/February 2016 is:
Gasiorek, J. (2015). Perspective-taking, inferred motive and perceived accommodation in nonaccommodative conversations. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 34, 577-586. doi: 10.1177/0261927X15584681
Abstract: Recent extensions of communication accommodation theory have emphasized the importance of inferred motives in understanding and predicting responses to nonaccommodation. This study explored the association between perspective-taking, motive inferences, and perceptions of accommodation in recalled conversations (N = 193). Higher levels of self-reported perspective-taking were found associated with more positively valenced motive inferences. Higher levels of perspective-taking also predicted more positive perceptions of accommodation for overaccommodative conversations, but not for underaccommodative conversations.
Focus Publication - December 2015
The (randomly) selected focus publication for December 2015 is:
Smith, S. A., Patmos, A. K., & Pitts, M. J. (2015). Communication and teleworking: A study of communication channel satisfaction, personality, and job satisfaction for teleworking employees. International Journal of Business Communication.
Focus Publication - November 2015
The (randomly) selected focus publication for November 2015 is:
Watson, B.M., & Giles, H. (2015). Intercultural and intergroup communication. In W. Donsbach (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of communication (pp. 271-273). New York: Blackwell/Wiley.
Focus Publication - September/October 2015
The (randomly) selected focus publication for September/October 2015 is:
Sercombe, P.G. & Young, T.J. (2015). Student Adjustment: Diversity and Uniformity of Experience. In Fabricius A.H. and Presisler,B. (Eds.), Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education (pp. 34-55). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
Abstract: Internationalisation of higher education has become a global phenomenon, as reflected by the fact that around 4 million people are now engaged in study outside their country of origin, a fourfold increase since 1999 (OECD, 2011). The UK is the largest single destination in Europe, and the second largest worldwide after the United States . Among full-time ‘taught’ postgraduates (as opposed to those studying for research degrees) in the UK, 66% are non-UK nationals (HESA 2010).For countries in net receipt of international students, higher education has come to be seen as central to economic development (Wright and Rabo 2010); however, ‘universities are no longer just servicing the economy: now educating international students is itself a lucrative trade’ (ibid: 3). In the UK, international postgraduate students generate significant income for higher education institutions (HEIs) and it is thus in the interests of HEIs to support such students, facilitate their retention and to attract new postgraduates. Until recently, there had been relatively little research which specifically focused on international students’ (ISs) transition to postgraduate study overseas, although there are bodies of research surrounding educational transitions, e.g. from school to tertiary level education; and from education to work (Tobbell and O’Donnell 2013). We are interested in ISs’ subjective views and reflections on their experiences. In this chapter, we report on sentiments expressed by ISs managing a formal education overseas sojourn. Our specific aim was to describe perceptions and provide insights into reports of those working towards taught a Master’s degree IN Cross Cultural communication, over the period of an academic year (equivalent to a calendar year), at a single HEI in the UK.
Focus Publication - August 2015
The (randomly selected) focus publication for August 2015 is:
McKenzie, R.M. (2015). The sociolinguistics of variety identification and categorisation: Free classification of varieties of spoken English amongst non-linguist listeners. Language Awareness, 24(2), 150-168. Doi: 10.1080/09658416.2014.998232
Abstract: In addition to the examination of non-linguists’ evaluations of different speech varieties, in recent years, sociolinguists and sociophoneticians have afforded greater attention towards the ways in which naïve listeners’ perceive, process and encode spoken language variation, including the identification of language varieties as regionally or socially localised forms. The present study attempts to extend understanding of non-linguists’ perceptions of linguistic diversity through the investigation of how accurately and consistently UK-born students, resident in the north-east of England, can identify the speaker place of origin of six forms of L1 and L2 English. The results demonstrate that whilst the process of encoding indexical properties to and categorisations of speech stimulus as belonging to a specific language variety is complex, there is a clear tendency amongst informants to initially identify the speech as either native or non-native, most especially through the perception of specific segmental and non-segmental phonological features, before attempting more fine-grained classifications. The findings also point to the recognition of speaker place of origin at different levels of awareness, above and below the level of individual consciousness.
Focus Publication - July 2015
Our focus publication for July 2015 is:
Harwood, J., & Vincze, L. (2015). Ethnolinguistic identity, vitality, and gratifications for television use in a bilingual media environment. Journal of Social Issues, 71, 73-89.
ABSTRACT: This article tests a model predicting minority language television consumption. We examine how four media gratifications (diversion, ethnolinguistic identity, surveillance, parasocial companionship) mediate the relationship between ethnolinguistic identification and choice of ingroup language television viewing. The study is performed among (minority) Hungarian speakers in Transylvania, Romania. Self-report questionnaire data from 401 Hungarian-speaking high school students in Csíkszereda/Miercurea Ciuc (a majority Hungarian locale) and Brassó/Brașov (a minority Hungarian locale) allowed us to compare high and low local vitality conditions. Analysis indicates that diversion (entertainment) and ethnolinguistic identity gratifications for watching ingroup language television are the strongest mediators of the influence of identification on ingroup language television use. We examined four moderators of these indirect effects (objective vitality, subjective vitality, intergroup contact, and intragroup contact). The moderators revealed a number of rather complex effects which are discussed with regard to the local intergroup context and broader issues of media and intergroup relations.
Focus Publication - June 2015
Our focus publication for this month (randomly selected) by an IALSP member is:
Burgers, C., Beukeboom, C.J., Sparks, L., & Diepeveen, V. (2015). How (not) to inform patients about drug use: Use and effects of negations in Dutch patient information leaflets. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 24(2), 137-143. doi: 10.1002/pds.3679.
Under EU regulations, patient information leaflets (PILs) are required to be clear and understandable. Negations (e.g., not, no) are a linguistic aspect that may impact PIL comprehension, yet go unmentioned in these regulations. We conducted two studies to determine (1) how negations are used in Dutch PILs (study 1) and (2) the effects of negations on readers (study 2).
Study 1 was a content analysis of 30 PILs of different brands of pollinosis drugs, half of which were freely available in drugstores and half only by physician prescription. We mapped negation use in PIL sections on ‘proper usage’ and ‘potential side effects’. Study 2 was an experiment in which participants (N = 80, Mage = 33.19 years, SDage = 13.66; 76.3% female) were presented with one of two PIL texts on proper drug usage. Texts were identical except for the use of negations. After reading, participants answered questions about comprehension, PIL appreciation and medical adherence intentions.
Study 1 demonstrates that negations are often used in PILs as 21.0% of clauses contain at least one negation. This number is higher in sections related to potential side effects than proper usage. Study 2 demonstrates that negations decrease both actual and subjective comprehension. Negations also decrease PIL appreciation and medical adherence intentions. The reduction in medical adherence intentions is driven by the decrease of subjective and not actual comprehension.
In general, participants prefer PILs that contain clear and comprehensible language. To increase comprehensibility, PIL designers should refrain from using negations as much as possible.
Focus Publication - May 2015
Our focus publication for this month (randomly selected) by an IALSP member is:
Bull, P.& Miskinis, K. (2015) Whipping it up! An analysis of audience responses to political rhetoric in speeches from the 2012 American presidential elections. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 34.
ABSTRACT: In the context of Hofstede’s distinction between collectivist and individualist societies, an analysis was conducted of rhetorical devices utilized to invite affiliative audience responses in 11 speeches delivered by the two principal candidates in the 2012 American presidential election (Barrack Obama and Mitt Romney). Results were compared with preexisting data on Japanese and British political speeches. Whereas Anglo American politicians principally utilized implicit rhetorical devices, the Japanese principally utilized explicit devices. Whereas individualized audience responses (isolated applause and individual remarks) occurred throughout the American speeches, Japanese audiences invariably responded together. Collective audience responses also occurred in the American speeches, but showed a greater diversity than those for the British or Japanese, with chanting and booing, as well as cheering, applause, and laughter. In the American speeches, a significant positive correlation was found between affiliative response rate and electoral success; this is the first study to demonstrate such a significant relationship.
Focus Publication - April 2015
For April 2015, our focus publication is:
Calleja, M., Montiel, C. J., Baquiano, M. (in press). Humor in power-differentiated intergroup wage negotiation. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology.
Abstract: This research examined the role of humour in power-differentiated wage bargaining conversations. We collected transcripts of wage bargaining between the local labour union and management negotiators of a multinational beverage company operating in the Philippines. Through conversation analysis, we determined how both parties utilised humor to challenge or maintain power relations even as both labour and management worked towards a wage bargaining agreement. Findings show that humour was used to maintain intergroup harmony, subvert authority and control the negotiation. Our findings may be useful for labour organisations and multinational corporations that operate in Southeast Asian countries with historically tumultuous labour relations such as the Philippines.