Member Publications

Showcasing Members' Scholarship

Each year, we collect and compile a list of publications by our members that have come out during that calendar year.

2023 Member Publications 

2022 Member Publications 

2021 Member Publications 

2020 Member Publications 

2019 Member Publications

2018 Member Publications

2017 Member Publications

2016 Member Publications

2015 Member Publications

Every one to two months, we randomly select a focus publication to be featured here.

Focus Publication - April/May 2024

The (randomly) selected focus publication for February/March 2024 is:

Acheme, D. E, & Makpu S. D. (2023). Portrayal and perception: Non-standard accents and their sociolinguistic implications in multilingual societies. Jos Journal of Foreign Languages and Literatures. 3(2), 1-20.


This study explored how the media in the U.S portray non-standard accents in T.V programmes, and the effect it had on the viewers. Six participants recruited via convenience and snowballing sampling were interviewed. Findings revealed that non-standard accents were portrayed as comical and stereotypical, which in turn impacted viewers’ perception of and attitudes toward non-standard accented speakers in two ways: (a) awareness of the media’s socialization and influence, and (b) utility of accents which corroborates with Communication Accommodation Theory. The implication of these findings signals the feelings of anxiety, threat, and social distance may be developed in viewers, as well as a simultaneous proclivity for ethnophaulism among members of multilingual society.

Focus Publication - February/March 2024

The (randomly) selected focus publication for February/March 2024 is:

Bernhold, Q. S., & Giles, H. (2022). Emotional mimicry: A communication accommodation perspective. Cognition & Emotion, 36(5), 99-804.


This commentary addresses emotional mimicry from a communication accommodation theory (CAT) perspective. After reviewing CAT, we outline commonalities between CAT and the Emotional Mimicry as Social Regulator view. We then discuss how CAT and the Emotional Mimicry as Social Regulator view can contribute to each other. Finally, we provide directions for future research on emotional mimicry informed by CAT, including ways to incorporate individual differences, listener-oriented perceptions, and variables relevant to families.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - November/December 2023

The (randomly) selected focus publication for November/December 2023 is:

Hiver, P., Al-Hoorie, A. H., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (2022). Toward a transdisciplinary integration of research purposes and methods for Complex Dynamic Systems Theory: Beyond the quantitative–qualitative divide. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 60(1), 7–22.


Complexity theory/dynamic systems theory has challenged conventional approaches to applied linguistics research by encouraging researchers to adopt a pragmatic transdisciplinary approach that is less paradigmatic and more problem-oriented in nature. Its proponents have argued that the starting point in research design should not be the quantitative–qualitative distinction, or even mixed methods, but the distinction between individual versus group-based designs (i.e., idiographic versus nomothetic). Taking insights from transdisciplinary complexity research in other human and social sciences, we propose an integrative transdisciplinary framework that unites these different perspectives (quantitative–qualitative, individual–group based) from the starting point of exploratory–falsificatory aims. We discuss the implications of this transdisciplinary approach to applied linguistics research and illustrate how such an integrated approach might be implemented in the field.

Focus Publication - September/October 2023

The (randomly) selected focus publication for September/October 2023 is:

Lo, N., & To, B. (2022). English Education Training and Practice in Secondary Schools During and Post-COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong. ESP Review, 4(2), 23-46.


Recent empirical evidence (see Anderson, Bousselot, Katz-Buoincontro, & Todd, 2021; Donitsa-Schmidt & Ramot, 2020; Ellis, Steadman, & Mao, 2020; Kim, Leary, & Asbury, 2021; Murphy, 2020) suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have far-reaching effects on teacher development outcomes, including role shaping, pedagogy, and goal-setting. Its disruptive effects are likely to redefine the priorities of continuing professional development (CPD) in the educational sector and reconstruct educators’ identity and roles in future English language educational systems. Accordingly, in this study, we aim to assess the factors shaping identity formation among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong to determine the influence of CPD and systemic needs on teacher role perceptions and goal-setting of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) and English for general academic purposes (EGAP) during and post- COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-method approach was applied for the collection of quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of Hong Kong in English language education in secondary schools. It is found that COVID-19 has disrupted the Hong Kong education system because of the abrupt and unprecedented transitioning from conventional teaching to digitalised teaching. School administrators are recommended to address the systemic gaps and skill-based deficiencies encountered by educators during COVID-19, and post-pandemic CPD should include information and communications technology (ICT) related solutions.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - March 2023

The (randomly) selected focus publication for March 2023 is:

Holtgraves, T., & Bray, K. (2022). US liberals and conservatives live in different (linguistic) worlds: Ideological differences when interpreting business conversations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1– 10.


When people use language to communicate, their intended meanings are not always conveyed by words alone. Instead, speakers sometimes convey their meaning in a relatively subtle, or indirect, fashion, and this requires some interpretation on the part of the receiver. In this study we investigated differences between US liberals and conservatives in their interpretation of conversation utterances that have these types of potential indirect meanings. Past research demonstrating cognitive differences between conservatives and liberals suggests liberals should be more likely than conservatives to engage in cognitive processes designed to uncover potential indirect meanings. To test this, we created a conversation between two businessmen that contained five types of indirect utterances that were chosen from the pragmatics literature. Participants were asked to rate the likelihood of an indirect interpretation of each of these utterances, as well as two control utterances that did not convey an indirect meaning. In three studies (Total N=664) liberals were significantly more likely to endorse the indirect interpretations of these utterances (but not the control utterances) than were conservatives. Several possible cognitive mediators (Empathy Quotient, Need for Cognition, and Cognitive Flexibility) were examined but did not account for the effect. The results demonstrate an important interactional implication of the cognitive processing differences between liberals and conservatives. Future research should attempt to extend these findings by using different utterances and contexts, as well as examining other potential mediators.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - January/February 2023

The (randomly) selected focus publication for January/February 2023 is:

Acheme, D. E. (2021). Stereotyped communication: The ascribed identities of Nigerians living in the U.S. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 1-19


This study examined how Nigerians in the U.S. negotiate their identities considering the stereotypes ascribed to them during interactions and strategies for attenuating stereotypes. Interviews with 20 Nigerians revealed that Nigerians were stereotyped positively (i.e., as hardworking, and passionate for education) and negatively (i.e., as fraudsters, kidnappers, and underdeveloped). Also, Nigerians attenuated stereotypes ascribed not only to Nigerians but to Blacks through nationalism, self-awareness, and hard work. Findings challenge beliefs that stereotyping occurs due to the lack of contact with outgroup members. Indeed, stereotyping occurs because of some form of history rather than an absence of history with outgroup members.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - September/October 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for September/October 2022 is:

Vitta, J., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2021). Measurement and sampling recommendations for L2 flipped learning experiments: A bottom-up methodological synthesis. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 18(2), 682–629.

The full text of this article is availabe here.

Focus Publication - August 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for August 2022 is:

Gasiorek, J., & Aune, R. K. (2021). Creating understanding: How communicating aligns minds. Peter Lang.


What, exactly, is understanding? And how do people create, maintain, and manipulate states of understanding via communication? This book addresses these questions, drawing on interdisciplinary scholarship in cognitive science, communication, psychology, and pragmatics. Rejecting classic descriptions of communication as "sending and receiving messages," this book proposes a novel perspective that depicts communication as a process in which interactants construct, test, and refine mental modes of a joint experience on the basis of the meme states (mental representations) activated by stimuli in social interactions. It explains how this process, when successful, results in interactants' mental models aligning, or becoming entrained—in other words, in creating a state of understanding. This framework is grounded in a set of foundational observations about evolved human cognition that highlight people's intrinsic social orientation, predisposition toward efficiency, and use of predictive interference-making. These principles are also used to explain how codified systems ("codes") emerge in extended or repeated interactions in which people endeavor to create understanding. Integrating and synthesizing research across disciplines, this book offers communication scholars and students a theoretical framework that will transform the way they see understanding, communication, and social connection.

More information about this book is available here and on the publisher's website.

Focus Publication - June/July 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for June/July 2022 is:

Grigoryev, D., Berry, J. W., Zabrodskaja, A. (2021). Editorial: Stereotypes and intercultural relations: Interdisciplinary integration, new approaches, and new contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 12 (728048), 1−4.

The full text of this article is available here.

Focus Publication - April/May 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for April/May 2022 is:

Abbasi, M., Khera, S., Dabravolskaj, J., Chevalier, B., & Parker, K. (2021). The seniors’ community hub: An integrated model of care for the identification and management of frailty in primary care. Geriatrics, 6(1), 18.


(1) Background: Integrated models of primary care deliver the comprehensive and pre- ventative approach needed to identify and manage frailty in older people. Seniors’ Community Hub (SCH) was developed to deliver person-centered, evidence-informed, coordinated, and integrated care services to older community dwelling adults living with frailty. This paper aims to describe the SCH model, and to present patient-oriented results of the pilot. (2) Methods: SCH was piloted in an academic clinic with six family physicians. Eligible patients were community dwelling, 65 years of age and older, and considered to be at risk of frailty (eFI > 0.12). Health professionals within the clinic received training in geriatrics and interprofessional teamwork to form the SCH team working with family physicians, patients and caregivers. The SCH intervention consisted of a team-based multi-domain assessment with person-centered care planning and follow-up. Patient-oriented out- comes (EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS) and 4-metre gait speed were measured at initial visit and 12 months later. (3) Results: 88 patients were enrolled in the pilot from April 2016–December 2018. No statisti- cally significant differences in EQ-5D-5L/VAS or the 4-metre gait speed were detected in 38 patients completing the 12-month assessment. (4) Conclusions: Future larger scale studies of longer duration are needed to demonstrate impacts of integrated models of primary care on patient-oriented out- comes for older adults living with frailty.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - March 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for March 2022 is:

Łojek, E., Egbert, A.R., Gambin, M., Gawron, N., Gorgol, J., Hansen, K., ... Żarnecka, D. (2021) Neuropsychological disorders after COVID-19. Urgent need for research and clinical practice. Advances in Psychiatry and Neurology, 30(2), 104-112.


Purpose: Numerous studies suggest that infection with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19 illness, can lead to changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, some individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection may also present the symptoms of neuropsychological disorders. The goals of this literature review is the synthesis of various perspectives and up-to-date scientific knowledge as well as the formulation of initial recommendations for clinical practice.

Views: According to current state of knowledge, numerous SARS-CoV-2 infection-specific and nonspecific risk factors exist for bra- in damage, which might lead to neuropsychological impairments in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19. The emerging evidence suggests significant behavioral and cognitive deficits in COVID-19 survivors, which are present in the early phase after recovery and persist for several months. Neuropsychological disturbances can potentially include a wide spectrum of disorders, yet deficits of attention, memory, executive functions, language and visuospatial orientation are among most commonly identified. The relationship between cognitive impairment, emotional disturbances and severity of COVID-19 symptoms needs to be submitted to further research.

Conclusions: The scientific knowledge resulting from neuropsychological empirical studies during the COVID-19 pandemic allows for a postulate of an urgent evidence-based systematic neuropsychological research to be conducted among COVID-19 survivors. More than anything, the recovered individuals must be provided with adequate neuropsychological help in the form of neuropsy- chological diagnosis, monitoring and rehabilitation.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - February 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for February 2022 is:

Bourhis, R.Y & Sioufi, R. (2021). Anglophone and Francophone desire to stay or leave Quebec. A Study of Quebec-born undergraduates in Montreal. In: L. O’Donnell, P. Donavan & B. Lewis (Eds.). The Charter. Bill 101 and English-Speaking Quebec (pp 85-124). Quebec: Presses de l’Université Laval.


Using the ethnolinguistic vitality and acculturation frameworks, this chapter examines economic prospects and linguistic tensions as push/ pull factors accounting for the willingness of Anglophones and Francophones to stay in Quebec or leave for the rest of Canada (ROC) 40 years after the adoption of the Charter of the French Language. Questionnaires were completed by Quebec Francophone (QF; n=234) and Quebec Anglophone (QA; n=205) undergraduates born in Quebec attending French and English universities in Montreal, respectively. Results showed that QA minority students were more willing to leave Quebec for the ROC than were majority QF undergraduates. For QFs, willingness to move to the ROC was predicted mainly by pull factors including seeking better economic prospects and joining a partner. For QAs willingness to leave Quebec was predicted by the following push factors : avoiding linguistic tensions, being victims of collective discrimination, perceiving English- French relations as zero-sum, and endorsing the separation acculturation orientation. Predictors of QAs’ willingness to stay in Quebec included perceiving positive economic prospects in Quebec and endorsing the integration acculturation orientation. An opinion survey completed only by QAs helps further account for their desire to stay in Quebec or leave. Results show the importance of language tensions as a factor predicting willingness of Quebec-born Anglophones to leave their province of origin for the ROC.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - January 2022

The (randomly) selected focus publication for January 2022 is:

Bernhold, Q. S., & Giles, H. (2020). Group-based identity accommodation in older adults’ romantic relationships. Communication Quarterly, 68, 417-437.


In this study, older adults’ reports of their romantic partner’s accommodation based on older adults’ membership in three groups were examined as predictors of relational closeness and loneliness. The three groups were older adults’ most important, second-most important, and third-most important group affiliations. A two-way interaction involving accommoda- tion based on membership in the second-most important and third-most important groups emerged in predicting relational closeness: Relational closeness remained consistently high when older adults perceived that their romantic partner engaged in high levels of accommodation based on older adults’ third-most important group, regardless of the level of accommodation based on older adults’ second-most important group. Relational closeness dropped most precipitously when accommodation based on both the second-most important and third-most important groups was low. Additionally, receiving accommodation based on the third-most important group pre- dicted less loneliness at the main-effects level. Findings are discussed in terms of communication accommodation theory and identity layering.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - December 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for December 2021 is:

Holtgraves, T. & Jenkins, E. (2020) Texting and the language of everyday deception. Discourse Processes, 57(7), 535-550, DOI: 10.1080/0163853X.2019.1711347


Two experiments were conducted to examine the production and detection of common, everyday deception. Experiment 1 was a naturalistic study in which participants provided their most recent truthful and deceptive (both sent and received) text messages. Participants in Experiment 2 were asked to generate text messages that were either deceptive or truthful. Messages in both experiments were analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program and presented to other participants for their judgments of truthfulness. LIWC analyses yielded both similarities (e.g., more negations in deceptive texts) and differences (e.g., more first-person pronouns in deceptive texts) with past deception research. In contrast to prior deception research, participants in both experiments were able to significantly differentiate between deceptive and nondeceptive messages, and some of the LIWC variables that differentiated deceptive from nondeceptive texts were significantly related to judgments of truthfulness.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - November 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for November 2021 is:

Dragojevic, M. (2020). Extending the fluency principle: Factors that increase listeners’ processing fluency positively bias their language attitudes. Communication Monographs, 87(2), 158-178.


Three experiments tested the proposition that factors that make foreign-accented speech easier to process (i.e., increase listeners’ processing fluency) positively bias listeners’ evaluations of foreign- accented speakers. Participants listened to an audio recording of a Mandarin-accented speaker either in the presence or absence of subtitles (Studies 1 and 2) or were either familiar or unfamiliar with the content of the message prior to listening to the recording (Study 3). Compared to the unsubtitled/unfamiliar conditions, the subtitled/familiar conditions increased listeners’ fluency, elicited more positive affect, and resulted in more favorable language attitudes. The effects of subtitles/familiarity on language attitudes were mediated by fluency and affect. An extension of the fluency principle is proposed.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - October 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for October 2021 is:

Chevalier, B. A., Watson, B. M., & Cottrell, W. N. (2020). Pharmacy students’ self-reported attitudes, beliefs and behaviours about communicating with patients, measured over time. Pharmacy Education, 20, 116-126.


Background: Pharmacy students receive training to effectively communicate with patients about their medications.

Objectives: A theory-based approach (Communication Accommodation Theory [CAT]) was used to investigate the impact of communication skills’ tutorials on Pharmacy students’ self-reported attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in patient communication.

Methods: Final year Pharmacy students completed an online, 30-item, patient-centred communication survey at three points in time, before and after attending three CAT-based tutorials (Survey #1 and Survey #2). Survey #3 was distributed six to twelve months into students’ intern training year (post-graduation). Differences between participants’ responses over time were measured and analysed.

Results: Response rates were 78% for Survey #1, 84% for Survey #2, and 28% for Survey #3. Further analysis indicated that Survey #3 respondents were not statistically different from the larger sample size. Key areas changed from baseline (Survey #1) to post tutorials (Survey #2) and were sustained well into Pharmacy students’ intern year (Survey #3).

Conclusions: This novel research indicated growing awareness and retention of key communication behaviours over time.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - September 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for September 2021 is:

Fowler, C. & Gasiorek, J. (2020). Implications of meta-stereotypes for attitudes toward intergenerational contact. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 23(1), 48-70.


Metastereotypes, the stereotypes a person believes that those outside of their group hold of a social group to which (s)he belongs, have been implicated in problematic intergroup relationships and communication. Using an online survey administered to participants (aged 18–30, or 65 and older) recruited via Amazon’s MTurk (final N = 311), we tested the degree to which eliciting positive versus negative age-based metastereotypes affected perceptions of interage distance and the desire to avoid interage contact. The results of conditional process model analyses suggest that metastereotype valence has an indirect effect on these outcomes via intergroup anxiety, but that this is only the case when individuals believe that age-related stereotypes are applied to them personally by members of an age- based outgroup. These findings suggest that thinking of positive metastereotypes rather than negative ones could be a route to facilitating or improving interage contact, and that personalization could amplify these potential benefits.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - August 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for August 2021 is:

Kim, S., & Harwood, J. (2020). Facebook contact: The effect of an outgroup member’s language proficiency on desire for future intergroup contact. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 77, 160-168.


Guided by contact theory, we examined the effect of an international student’s English language proficiency on American students’ desire for future interaction with international students, online and in-person. We created a fictitious Facebook page of a female Chinese international student and experimentally manipulated her Facebook posts to represent low or high English proficiency. American students (N = 126) in the high proficiency condition reported more identification with the international student, which subsequently led to more desire for future interaction with the student both online and in person. These effects generalized to a desire for interaction with other Chinese students (again, both online and in person). The findings of the study have theoretical and practical implications for online intergroup communication.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - July 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for July 2021 is:

Pitts, M. J. (2020). Epilogue: The language opportunities for the 21st century. Invited epilogue to the Special Issue, Language challenges of the XXI century. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 39, 567-574. DOI: 10.1177/0261927X20933997


This epilogue to the Special Issue on Language Challenges in the 21st Century offers commentary on the current state of social scientific inquiry in the field of language and social psychology. Inspired by the seven articles that make up this Special Issue, I became curious about what we would find if we sought language opportunities instead of language challenges in the 21st century. I recommend future scholarship at the intersections of global and linguistic diversity include a positive social science approach in order to consider the full spectrum of challenges and assets. I conclude with a note about the direction of future research related to COVID-19.

A PDF of this article is available for download here

Focus Publication - June 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for June 2021 is:

Liang, Y., & Schartner, A. (2020). Culturally Mixed Group Work and the Development of Students’ Intercultural Competence. Journal of Studies in International Education, DOI:


Culturally mixed group work has become a common mode of assessment in higher education to encourage students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds to learn from and work with each other. This article aims to address whether culturally mixed group work can contribute to students’ intercultural competence (IC) development. The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire was used to measure students’ IC development over time, while three waves of interviews investigated students’ attitudes on culturally mixed group work. Findings suggest that both staff and students think culturally mixed group work can be beneficial and is an effective way to develop IC and increase intercultural awareness. However, students perceived it as both rewarding and challenging. Findings showed that without staff guidance, mixed group activities can cause a long-term negative effect on students’ open-mindedness. This result points to a need to reconsider how mixed-culture group work can be utilized effectively in class.

A PDF of this article is available for download here

Focus Publication - May 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for May 2021 is:

Ladegaard, H. J. (2020). Language competence, identity construction and discursive boundary-making: Distancing and alignment in domestic migrant worker narratives. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 262, 97-122.


Many people in developing countries are faced with a dilemma. If they stay at home, their children are kept in poverty with no prospects of a better future; if they become migrant workers, they will suffer long-term separation from their families. This article focuses on one of the weakest groups in the global economy: domestic migrant workers. It draws on a corpus of more than 400 narratives recorded at a church shelter in Hong Kong and among migrant worker returnees in rural Indonesia and the Philippines. In sharing sessions, migrant women share their experiences of working for abu- sive employers, and the article analyses how language is used to include and exclude. The women tell how their employers construct them as “incompetent” and “stupid” because they do not speak Chinese. However, faced by repression and marginalisation, the women use their superior English language skills to get back at their employers and momentarily gain the upper hand. Drawing on ideologies of language as the theoretical concept, the article provides a discourse analysis of selected excerpts focusing on language competence and identity construction.

A PDF of this article is available for download here

Focus Publication - April 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for April 2021 is:

Budziszewska, M., & Hansen, K. (2020). “Anger detracts from beauty”: Gender differences in adolescents’ narratives about anger. Journal of Adolescent Research, 35(5), 635–664. doi: 10.1177/0743558419845870


In a mixed design narrative study, we explore how adolescent boys and girls represent experiences of anger and how their narrations are linked to self-esteem and anxiety. Polish teens from three non-urban public schools (N = 101, 55% female, Mage = 15.5) wrote narrative accounts of their typical anger experience. We use a thematic analysis framework to analyze the patterns in these narratives. Boys and girls told stories within school, family, and relationship contexts. However, boys provided more stories that focused on the theme of everyday incidental instances of anger, while girls provided more stories focused on the theme of negative inner experiences. In-depth analysis resulted in the emergence of two complex narrative patterns: Anger as Outburst and Anger as Burden. Anger as Outburst described heated anger related to difficulties in self-control and aggression and was more characteristic of boys. Anger as Burden contained stories of prolonged anger related to negative self-evaluation and was more characteristic of girls. Anger as Burden was also related to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem. We conclude that in the given cultural context, adolescents lack positive narratives to frame their anger adaptively.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - March 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for March 2021 is:

Spencer-Oatey, H., & Debray, C. (2020). Linguistically and culturally diverse project partnerships and teams. In J. Jackson (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication (2nd ed., pp. 487-502). London: Routledge.

A PDF of this chapter is available for download here.

Focus Publication - February 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for February 2021 is:

Tracy, K. (2020). Judicial questioning: How context shapes facework strategies. In D. Archer, K. Grainger, & P. Jogodzinski (Eds.), Politeness in professional contexts (pp. 249-270). Amsterdam: John Benjamims.

A PDF of this chapter is available for download here.

Focus Publication - January 2021

The (randomly) selected focus publication for January 2021 is:

Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2019). Evolution of L2 motivation in higher education. The Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, 20, 249–263.


This paper investigates how L2 motivation evolves over time in higher education. A motivational-intensity questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 145 first-year male students studying in the foundation year of a higher education institution in Saudi Arabia. The Mann–Whitney U test and the Student’s t-test showed that the motivational intensity of second-semester students was significantly lower in terms of daily studying and preparation for major exams. The results also showed a worrying pattern of Saudi L2 learners exhibiting little inclination to practice the reading skill. Possible interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.

A PDF of this article is available for download here.

Focus Publication - December 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for December 2020 is:

Stanley, S. J., Yan, K., Jian, J., Lutovsky, B., Aubrey, J. S., & Pitts, M. J. (2019). Communicating about sex when it matters: A content analytic investigation of sexual health information on college student health center websites. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 47, 591-610. doi:10.1080/00909882.2019.1675895


Young adults struggle to achieve sexual health. Student Health Centers (SHCs) associated with colleges and universities are uniquely positioned to provide young adults with credible and complete sexual health information. Using the comprehensive model of information seeking for theoretical guidance, we conducted a content analysis to examine the credibility and completeness of sexual health information available to young adults through SHC websites at 400 randomly selected U.S. colleges/universities. Unfortunately, most SHC websites do not provide complete sexual health information, which may decrease the credibility of SHCs as a source of sexual health information for young adults. Few websites (9.0%, n = 36) had an explicitly labeled sexual health area, and most of the remaining websites merely mentioned sexual health (80.2%, n = 292), suggesting that for many SHCs, sexual health is covered perfunctorily. Topics related to sexual health predominantly focused on prevention and risk topics (i.e., STDs, contraception, and pregnancy). We offer practical suggestions for SHC webpages to align their sexual health information content with the American College Health Association standards of practice and point to a scholarly focus on content characteristics and information availability to complement information seeking studies.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - October/Novemeber 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for October/November 2020 is:

Edwards, J. (2019). Minority languages and group identity: Scottish Gaelic in the Old World and the New. In S. Preece (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of language and identity (pp. 492-503). New York and Oxford: Routledge.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - August/September 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for August/September 2020 is:

Jordan, K. N., Sterling, J., Pennebaker, J. W., & Boyd, R. L. (2019). Examining long-term trends in politics and culture through language of political leaders and cultural institutions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 3476-3481. doi:10.1073/pnas.1811987116


From many perspectives, the election of Donald Trump was seen as a departure from long-standing political norms. An analysis of Trump’s word use in the presidential debates and speeches indicated that he was exceptionally informal but at the same time, spoke with a sense of certainty. Indeed, he is lower in analytic thinking and higher in confidence than almost any previous American president. Closer analyses of linguistic trends of presidential language indicate that Trump’s language is consistent with long-term linear trends, demonstrating that he is not as much an outlier as he initially seems. Across multiple corpora from the American presidents, non-US leaders, and legislative bodies spanning decades, there has been a general decline in analytic thinking and a rise in confidence in most political contexts, with the largest and most consistent changes found in the American presidency. The results suggest that certain aspects of the language style of Donald Trump and other recent leaders reflect long-evolving political trends. Implications of the changing nature of popular elections and the role of media are discussed.

For more information about this article, see:

Focus Publication - July 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for July 2020 is:

Close, E., White, B.P., Willmott, L., Gallois, C., Parker, M., Graves, N., & Winch, S. (2019). Doctors’ perceptions of how resource limitations relate to futility in end-of-life decision making: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Medical Ethics, 45, 373-379.


Objective: To increase knowledge of how doctors perceive futile treatments and scarcity of resources at the end of life. In particular, their perceptions about whether and how resource limitations influence end‐of‐life decision making. This study builds on previous work that found some doctors include resource limitations in their understanding of the concept of futility.

Setting: Three tertiary hospitals in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia.

Design: Qualitative study using in‐depth, semi‐structured, face‐to‐face interviews. Ninety‐six doctors were interviewed in eleven medical specialties. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.

Results: Doctors’ perceptions of whether resource limitations were relevant to their practice varied, and doctors were more comfortable with explicit rather than implicit rationing. Several doctors incorporated resource limitations into their definition of futility. For some, availability of resources was one factor of many in assessing futility, secondary to patient considerations, but a few doctors indicated that the concept of futility concealed rationing. Doctors experienced moral distress due to the resource implications of providing futile treatment and the lack of administrative supports for bedside rationing.

Conclusions: Doctors’ ability to distinguish between futility and rationing would be enhanced through regulatory support for explicit rationing, and strategies to support doctors’ role in rationing at the bedside. Medical policies should address the distinction between resource limitations and futility to promote legitimacy in end‐of‐life decision making.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - June 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for June 2020 is:

Bourhis, R.Y. (2019). Evaluating the impact of Bill 101 on the English-Speaking communities of Quebec. Language Problems and Language Planning, 43, 198-229.


Though forty years of language policies much improved the status and use of French in Quebec, laws such as Bill 101 played a role in reducing the demographic and institutional vitality of the English-speaking communities of Quebec (ESCQ). Pro-French laws maintained Francophones at close to 80% of the Quebec population and ensured that 95% of the Quebec population acquired knowledge of French. Language laws contributed to the decline of Anglophone mother tongue speakers from 13% of the population in 1971 to 7.5% in 2016, while increasing to 70% French/English bilingualism amongst Anglophones. With a net interprovincial loss of over 310,000 Anglophones who left Quebec for the rest of Canada (ROC), results show that Anglophones who stayed in Quebec are less educated and earn lower income than Quebec Francophones. Language laws limiting access to English schools succeeded in reducing the size of the English school system from 256, 251 pupils in 1971 (100%) to only 96,235 pupils in 2018 (37%). While the Anglophone minority bemoan their demographic and institutional decline in education, health care, and government services, many Francophones remains concerned about threats to French by bilingualism in Montreal and their minority status in Canada and North America.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - May 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for May 2020 is:

Honeycutt, J., & Harwood, J. (2019). Using music therapy and imagined interaction to cope with stress. In J. Honeycutt (Ed.), Promoting mental health through imagery and imagined interactions (pp. 73-92). New York, NY: Peter Lang.


Music affects moods and emotion and can help people in dealing with stress. Music therapy has been shown to reduce pain and cope with depression. In fact, the ISO (Incremental Sound Organizer) principle of music therapy reveals how people’s emotions can change while listening to a medley of music. Research is reviewed in which people have imagined interactions while listening to music as memories are recalled. Music is used to maintain relationships as couples often have their own song. Music fulfills the catharsis function of imagined interactions as people release anxiety or tension. Music serves numerous functions, which can be subsumed into 1) achieving self-awareness, 2) expressing social relatedness, and 3) regulating, arousal and mood. Respectively, these functions are similar to the II features of valence, self-understanding, and relational maintenance. Music could have emerged as a form of coalition signaling by using music in groups, we signal to others that our group is organized, resource-rich, synchronized, and “in tune” (both literally and metaphorically) with one another.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - March/April 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for March/April 2020 is:

Bernhold, Q., & Giles, H. (2019). Communication accommodation theory as a lens to examine painful self-disclosures in grandparent-grandchild relationships. In T. Avtgis, A. Rancer, E. MacGeorge, & C. Liberman (eds), Casing communication theory (pp. 31-48). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - January/February 2020

The (randomly) selected focus publication for January/February 2020 is:

Park, K., & Dubinsky, S. (2019). The syntax and semantics of negative questions and answers in Korean and English. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 4, 19, 1-9. Washington DC: LSA. doi:10.3765/plsa.v4i1.4518


Differences in Korean and English negative polarity questions (NPQs) are revealed by the interpretation of simple yesno answers to them. Yesno answers to NPQs have seemingly unpredictable interpretations (Claus et al. 2017, Holmberg 2013, Kim 2017, Krifka 2017, Kramer & Rawlins 2009, Ladd 1981, Sudo 2013). However, one clearly observable fact is that yesno answers to English and Korean NPQs can have opposite interpretations. This study: (i) compares the interpretation of positive and negative polarity questions (PPQs and NPQs) in English and Korean; (ii) examines the structure of negation in each language and its interaction with NPQs, and (iii) reports on an online experiment which gathered native speaker interpretations of NPQs in each language under context-free conditions.

[ PDF ]

Focus Publication - May 2016

he (randomly) selected focus publication for May 2016 is:

Setchell, J., Watson, B., Jones, L., & Gard, M. (2015). Weight stigma in physiotherapy practice: Insights from patient experiences of interactions with physiotherapists. Manual Therapy. 20, 835–841. [ PDF ]



Weight management is increasingly considered part of physiotherapists’ scope of practice in order to improve patient outcomes by, for example, reducing load on joints, or improving chronic pain. However, interactions with patients involving weight may result in patient perceptions of negative judgement from health professionals, which can result in poorer health outcomes. How physiotherapist/patient interactions involving weight are perceived by patients has not yet been investigated.


To explore patients’ perceptions of interactions with physiotherapists that involved weight, and investigate how these perceptions may inform physiotherapy practice.


Face-to-face interviews with physiotherapy patients, with follow up interviews conducted by telephone. Data were analysed thematically.


First interviews were held in a physiotherapy practice with follow up interviews conducted two weeks later. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic method established by Braun and Clarke.


Thirty interviews with 15 patients were analysed. Four main themes relevant to weight were identified: 1) perceptions of being ‘in physiotherapy’ including pre-conceptions, the physical environment, and exposing the body, 2) emphasis placed on weight in physiotherapy interactions, 3) communication styles, and 4) judgement perception.


Some patients perceived negative weight judgements from elements of physiotherapy interactions and environments. Physiotherapists need to be aware of this perception because it may result in poorer patient outcomes and patients avoiding physiotherapy appointments. The results suggest strategies to counteract weight stigma include: adjusting the physical environment of the clinic, portraying an understanding of complex determinants of weight, and employing collaborative, non-judgemental communication styles.

Focus Publication - March/April 2016

The (randomly) selected focus publication for March/April 2016 is:

Hewett, D.G., Watson, B.M., & Gallois, C. (2015). Communication between hospital doctors: Underaccommodation and interpretability. Language and Communication, 41, 71-83.

Abstract: We examined underaccommodation in hospital medical charts, with a focus on interpretability. In Study 1 147 hospital doctors completed a questionnaire including interpretations of chart entries from their own or another specialty. Study 2 used interviews with 10 doctors to explore interpretations of the same charts and perceptions of the writers. Results indicated that participants interpreted entries by ingroup doctors more accurately than outgroup ones. Interview findings indicated that doctors made excuses for their peers and cast patients as an outgroup. Results indicate that underaccommodation leads to lack of comprehension, which is generally excused by readers.

Focus Publication - January/February 2016

The (randomly) selected focus publication for January/February 2016 is:

Gasiorek, J. (2015). Perspective-taking, inferred motive and perceived accommodation in nonaccommodative conversations. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 34, 577-586. doi: 10.1177/0261927X15584681

Abstract: Recent extensions of communication accommodation theory have emphasized the importance of inferred motives in understanding and predicting responses to nonaccommodation. This study explored the association between perspective-taking, motive inferences, and perceptions of accommodation in recalled conversations (N = 193). Higher levels of self-reported perspective-taking were found associated with more positively valenced motive inferences. Higher levels of perspective-taking also predicted more positive perceptions of accommodation for overaccommodative conversations, but not for underaccommodative conversations.

Focus Publication - December 2015

The (randomly) selected focus publication for December 2015 is:

Smith, S. A., Patmos, A. K., & Pitts, M. J. (2015). Communication and teleworking: A study of communication channel satisfaction, personality, and job satisfaction for teleworking employees. International Journal of Business Communication.

Focus Publication - November 2015

The (randomly) selected focus publication for November 2015 is:

Watson, B.M., & Giles, H. (2015). Intercultural and intergroup communication. In W. Donsbach (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of communication (pp. 271-273). New York: Blackwell/Wiley.

Focus Publication - September/October 2015

The (randomly) selected focus publication for September/October 2015 is:

Sercombe, P.G. & Young, T.J. (2015). Student Adjustment: Diversity and Uniformity of Experience. In Fabricius A.H. and Presisler,B. (Eds.), Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education (pp. 34-55). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Abstract: Internationalisation of higher education has become a global phenomenon, as reflected by the fact that around 4 million people are now engaged in study outside their country of origin, a fourfold increase since 1999 (OECD, 2011). The UK is the largest single destination in Europe, and the second largest worldwide after the United States . Among full-time ‘taught’ postgraduates (as opposed to those studying for research degrees) in the UK, 66% are non-UK nationals (HESA 2010).For countries in net receipt of international students, higher education has come to be seen as central to economic development (Wright and Rabo 2010); however, ‘universities are no longer just servicing the economy: now educating international students is itself a lucrative trade’ (ibid: 3). In the UK, international postgraduate students generate significant income for higher education institutions (HEIs) and it is thus in the interests of HEIs to support such students, facilitate their retention and to attract new postgraduates. Until recently, there had been relatively little research which specifically focused on international students’ (ISs) transition to postgraduate study overseas, although there are bodies of research surrounding educational transitions, e.g. from school to tertiary level education; and from education to work (Tobbell and O’Donnell 2013). We are interested in ISs’ subjective views and reflections on their experiences. In this chapter, we report on sentiments expressed by ISs managing a formal education overseas sojourn. Our specific aim was to describe perceptions and provide insights into reports of those working towards taught a Master’s degree IN Cross Cultural communication, over the period of an academic year (equivalent to a calendar year), at a single HEI in the UK.

Focus Publication - August 2015

The (randomly selected) focus publication for August 2015 is:

McKenzie, R.M. (2015). The sociolinguistics of variety identification and categorisation: Free classification of varieties of spoken English amongst non-linguist listeners. Language Awareness, 24(2), 150-168. Doi: 10.1080/09658416.2014.998232 

Abstract: In addition to the examination of non-linguists’ evaluations of different speech varieties, in recent years, sociolinguists and sociophoneticians have afforded greater attention towards the ways in which naïve listeners’ perceive, process and encode spoken language variation, including the identification of language varieties as regionally or socially localised forms. The present study attempts to extend understanding of non-linguists’ perceptions of linguistic diversity through the investigation of how accurately and consistently UK-born students, resident in the north-east of England, can identify the speaker place of origin of six forms of L1 and L2 English. The results demonstrate that whilst the process of encoding indexical properties to and categorisations of speech stimulus as belonging to a specific language variety is complex, there is a clear tendency amongst informants to initially identify the speech as either native or non-native, most especially through the perception of specific segmental and non-segmental phonological features, before attempting more fine-grained classifications. The findings also point to the recognition of speaker place of origin at different levels of awareness, above and below the level of individual consciousness.

Focus Publication - July 2015

Our focus publication for July 2015 is:

Harwood, J., & Vincze, L. (2015). Ethnolinguistic identity, vitality, and gratifications for television use in a bilingual media environment. Journal of Social Issues, 71, 73-89.

ABSTRACT: This article tests a model predicting minority language television consumption. We examine how four media gratifications (diversion, ethnolinguistic identity, surveillance, parasocial companionship) mediate the relationship between ethnolinguistic identification and choice of ingroup language television viewing. The study is performed among (minority) Hungarian speakers in Transylvania, Romania. Self-report questionnaire data from 401 Hungarian-speaking high school students in Csíkszereda/Miercurea Ciuc (a majority Hungarian locale) and Brassó/Brașov (a minority Hungarian locale) allowed us to compare high and low local vitality conditions. Analysis indicates that diversion (entertainment) and ethnolinguistic identity gratifications for watching ingroup language television are the strongest mediators of the influence of identification on ingroup language television use. We examined four moderators of these indirect effects (objective vitality, subjective vitality, intergroup contact, and intragroup contact). The moderators revealed a number of rather complex effects which are discussed with regard to the local intergroup context and broader issues of media and intergroup relations.

Focus Publication - June 2015

Our focus publication for this month (randomly selected) by an IALSP member is:

Burgers, C., Beukeboom, C.J., Sparks, L., & Diepeveen, V. (2015). How (not) to inform patients about drug use: Use and effects of negations in Dutch patient information leaflets. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 24(2), 137-143. doi: 10.1002/pds.3679.


Under EU regulations, patient information leaflets (PILs) are required to be clear and understandable. Negations (e.g., not, no) are a linguistic aspect that may impact PIL comprehension, yet go unmentioned in these regulations. We conducted two studies to determine (1) how negations are used in Dutch PILs (study 1) and (2) the effects of negations on readers (study 2).


Study 1 was a content analysis of 30 PILs of different brands of pollinosis drugs, half of which were freely available in drugstores and half only by physician prescription. We mapped negation use in PIL sections on ‘proper usage’ and ‘potential side effects’. Study 2 was an experiment in which participants (N = 80, Mage = 33.19 years, SDage = 13.66; 76.3% female) were presented with one of two PIL texts on proper drug usage. Texts were identical except for the use of negations. After reading, participants answered questions about comprehension, PIL appreciation and medical adherence intentions.


Study 1 demonstrates that negations are often used in PILs as 21.0% of clauses contain at least one negation. This number is higher in sections related to potential side effects than proper usage. Study 2 demonstrates that negations decrease both actual and subjective comprehension. Negations also decrease PIL appreciation and medical adherence intentions. The reduction in medical adherence intentions is driven by the decrease of subjective and not actual comprehension.


In general, participants prefer PILs that contain clear and comprehensible language. To increase comprehensibility, PIL designers should refrain from using negations as much as possible.

Focus Publication - May 2015

Our focus publication for this month (randomly selected) by an IALSP member is: 

Bull, P.& Miskinis, K. (2015) Whipping it up! An analysis of audience responses to political rhetoric in speeches from the 2012 American presidential elections. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 34.

ABSTRACT: In the context of Hofstede’s distinction between collectivist and individualist societies, an analysis was conducted of rhetorical devices utilized to invite affiliative audience responses in 11 speeches delivered by the two principal candidates in the 2012 American presidential election (Barrack Obama and Mitt Romney). Results were compared with preexisting data on Japanese and British political speeches. Whereas Anglo American politicians principally utilized implicit rhetorical devices, the Japanese principally utilized explicit devices. Whereas individualized audience responses (isolated applause and individual remarks) occurred throughout the American speeches, Japanese audiences invariably responded together. Collective audience responses also occurred in the American speeches, but showed a greater diversity than those for the British or Japanese, with chanting and booing, as well as cheering, applause, and laughter. In the American speeches, a significant positive correlation was found between affiliative response rate and electoral success; this is the first study to demonstrate such a significant relationship.

Focus Publication - April 2015

For April 2015, our focus publication is: 

Calleja, M., Montiel, C. J., Baquiano, M. (in press). Humor in power-differentiated intergroup wage negotiation. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology.

Abstract: This research examined the role of humour in power-differentiated wage bargaining conversations. We collected transcripts of wage bargaining between the local labour union and management negotiators of a multinational beverage company operating in the Philippines. Through conversation analysis, we determined how both parties utilised humor to challenge or maintain power relations even as both labour and management worked towards a wage bargaining agreement. Findings show that humour was used to maintain intergroup harmony, subvert authority and control the negotiation. Our findings may be useful for labour organisations and multinational corporations that operate in Southeast Asian countries with historically tumultuous labour relations such as the Philippines.